Proof Philo is The Author of Hebrews and Wisdom of Solomon

This article will prove that Philo Judaeus of Alexandria is the mystery author of the book of Hebrews and also the Wisdom of Solomon.


Section 1: Who Was Philo?
Section 2: Proof Philo Wrote the Old Testament Apocrypha book of The Wisdom of Solomon
Section 3: Proof Philo Wrote the book of Hebrews
Section 4: Answering Concerns
Section 5: Fruits of These Revelations
Section 6: Warnings: Translations and Infancy of His Earliest Writings
Section 7: Philo On Other Multiple Topics
Section 8: Manuscripts

Section 1: Who Was Philo?

Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, of the tribe of Levi, lived c. 30-10 B.C. to c. 50-70 A.D. No one knows for sure exactly when he was born or died. Most guess that he lived 20 BC to 50 AD, but I've seen many other variable dates. The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia says that it's more likely that he died "in the early years of Nero (54-65 AD)." ... "He paid a second visit to Rome possibly after 50 AD, at all events, in the reign of Claudius." Therefore, the most common date given for his death as being as early as 50 A.D. is probably wrong. Either way, he definitely lived during the entire lifetime of Jesus, which is very significant, especially since he wrote many manuscripts. Today, he is known as an ancient Greek philosopher. His name "Philo" can also be spelled Philos and Philnos. In this article, I will use the different spellings interchangeably. It Greek, it would have definitely always needed with the letter s. Today, most people never spell it with a letter s. Everyone pronounces his name "Ph-Lo". But his name in Greek is more accurately "Phil-Lo", as in the pronunciation of "Phillip-Lo". Everyone is going to say that I am wrong about this. But that's because society has been brainwashed and programmed to believe lies traditionally taught by Freemasons who have sworn to hide the truth.

Philo was a very important leader of the Jewish community in Alexandria, Egypt, which is a location that is extremely important to bible history. He kept and promoted the observance of the biblical festivals. He refused to worship the Roman emperor as god. He wrote many scrolls about the bible especially about Genesis, Exodus, the law, the nature of God, the soul of man, wisdom and most importantly, he wrote that "the Logos" of God (The Word of God) is the Son of God and is the High Priest! His works include references to the Son of God, the Word, sheep with no shepherd, fishermen letting down their nets, the woman taken in adultery, rising up in the air to be with the Lord, and being tested like gold by fire! Philos wrote in Dreams 1.XXXVII (1.215) "For there are, as it seems, two temples belonging to God; one being this world, in which the high priest is the divine logos, his own firstborn son." "Logos" is the Greek word in John 1 and other bible scripture verses translated as "the word" when referring to Jesus as being "the word" of God. Therefore, very clearly he believed in Jesus as God and wrote much about Jesus without actually using his name, until he wrote the book of Hebrews.

With all of these amazing facts, what I want to know, is why have most modern day church pastors failed to tell the church about Philo? In the first few centuries of the Christian church, he was well known and well respected, and rightfully so.

Early Church "Fathers" and Historians

Jesus said there were other true followers during his lifetime that were not among the immediate disciples.
Luke 9:49-50 And John answered and said, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name; and we forbad him, because he followeth not with us. And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is not against us is for us.

John 10:16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

Did you read the above scriptures in your personal paperback/hardback bible today or just only on this website?
If only online, I encourage you to please open your bible and read these verses both on our website and in your bible. There is power in reading the real bible. Also, did you pray before beginning to read about this specific subject today? If not, I encourage you to take the time now to pray for understanding of truth.

-Josephus said that Philo was "a man respected in every way". Antiquities 18.258.

-Early apologist Justin Martyr (100 AD) believed Plato spoke well in proportion to the share he had of the word. Source

-Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215), an Alexandrian philosopher wrote in support of Philo and Plato. Clement specifically referred to Philo on 4 occasions, but quoted Philo's works even more often. Source = Why Does Clement of Alexandria Call Philo "The Pythagorean?" Vigiliae Christianae Vol. 49, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 1-22 by David T. Runia.

-Eusebius (AD 260/265 – 339/341) wrote much about Philo, respected him greatly and claimed that Philo had met Peter in Rome. That is extremely important, because if Philo had not yet learned about the identity of the divine Word and Son of God, he surely would have been told by Peter.

-Jerome (345-420 A.D.) lists him as a church Father.

Section 2: Proof Philo Wrote the Old Testament Apocrypha Book of The Wisdom of Solomon

The Apocrypha book of The Wisdom of Solomon was the last book of the Old Testament written. The Muratorian Fragment of c. 170 A.D. says that the Wisdom of Solomon was written by Philnos. Most people claim that the fragment says that Wisdom was "written by the friends of Solomon in his honor". But that is a mistranslation and an exaggeration. The Greek word for "friends" looks extremely similar to Philo's name. The spelling in combination with the timing, location and style of writing totally proves Philo's authorship.
About 20 percent of the words in this book of Wisdom are not found in any other canonical book of the Old Testament. That's important because Philo was known for being the first well known writer of many words. The Wisdom of Solomon was written during the lifetime of Philo, by a very highly educated devout Jew of Alexandria, Egypt, where Philo was among the most important spiritual leaders and was highly educated. The elegant style of the writing of the book of Wisdom matches greatly with Philo's well known writings. The book of Hebrews was the most elegantly written book of the New Testament, whereas, the Wisdom of Solomon was the most elegantly written book of the Old Testament. The fragment as well as the dating, location and style of writing all confirm his authorship.

Section 3: Proof Philo Wrote the Book of Hebrews

It is traditionally taught that it is not known who wrote the book of Hebrews. Many people wrongfully believe and teach that Paul wrote it. But that's totally impossible as this article will prove, even as it has already been well accepted among most scholars that Paul did not write Hebrews.

Date of Hebrews:

Hebrews was written some time between 34-69 A.D. by a highly educated Christian Hellenized Jew from Alexandria who was at least extremely familiar with the book called "Wisdom of Solomon". But I will prove that Philo wrote both books.
It's impossible for Paul to have written the book of Hebrews, as Paul's writing style was extremely different from the author of Hebrews. The person who wrote Hebrews wrote in a very proper and elegant style, in fact, Hebrews has the most highly sophisticated style of the entire New Testament! Hebrews has many Greek words in common with Philo’s writing, not just a few, but rather many. The author of Hebrews was very clearly a Hellenized Jew from Alexandria. Paul was not.
Also, Paul wrote the name "Moses" a total of only 10 times in all of his writings combined. But the book of Hebrews alone uses the name "Moses" 11 times just in the one book of Hebrews. We also know that Philo wrote much about Moses in the collection of his writings that we now call "The Works of Philo" which uses a highly sophisticated style.

Prominent German theologian and church historian, Adolf Von Harnack (1851-1930) at one time believed that Hebrews was written around 65 A.D. before Matthew, Luke, Acts, John and many other books, maybe around the same time as Mark or even possibly before Mark. But later Harnack changed his mind and said that some of these books were older than Hebrews. Although he changed his mind, there was at least a time that he felt that there was evidence that Hebrews was earlier than most of the New Testament books. Some people place the book of Hebrews as early as 63 before all 4 gospels + Acts & Revelation, but not earlier than some of Paul's writings.
The fact that Hebrews was not well accepted by the Roman Catholic Church until 2 or 3 centuries after Christ, and the fact that author's name is hidden from the manuscripts, as well as these same similarities of anonymity and reluctance against the Old Testament Apocrypha book of "the Wisdom of Solomon", seems to indicate a relationship between the 2 books.

The Wisdom of Solomon, written by Philo, was the very last book of the Old Testament written. Whereas, I believe that Hebrews was the very first book written of the New Testament, or at least the first book of the New Testament not written by Paul. The Wisdom of Solomon, and then the book of Hebrews, both serve as a bridge for Jews to cross over from the Old Covenant to the New Covenant and the acceptance of the promised Messiah.
Many people date Hebrews as being as late as 65 AD because the last few verses declare that Timothy was just released from prison. Bible scholar Raymond Brown (1928 – 1998) notes that in the year 64, Paul left Timothy at Ephesus, to govern that church. Therefore, it's possible that Timothy could have been arrested as early as the year 64-65. However, it's not impossible for the date to have been earlier. And the dates of the writings of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are also debated. We simply don't know the exact dates of the writing of Hebrews, the date of Philo's death or the writings of other books of the New Testament. Therefore it would be wrong to say with absolute certainly/surety that Hebrews was written after Philo died. His traditional death date of 50 A.D. is only a mere conjuncture which can't be proven and I have not seen any proof of that decade at all. All solid evidence of writing style, words used, context, comparisons with the Wisdom of Solomon and with Philo's acknowledged writings, all prove that Philo wrote the book of Hebrews, as well as the Wisdom of Solomon. Therefore I believe that either Hebrews was written before 50 AD, or that Philo lived until at least 65 AD, or both. And neither can be proven wrong.

Significance of The Title of Hebrews

The title "To The Hebrews" found on ancient manuscripts is very important because the usage of the word "Hebrews" or "Hebrew" was not common in the bible. "Hebrew(s)" is found in only 32 verses in the entire Old Testament and 3 times in the New Testament, and the word "Hebrew" when referring to a person being a Hebrew is used only once in the New Testament. The word "Hebrews" is not actually found in the book of Hebrews. Nevertheless, we do find the title of "To The Hebrews" in ancient manuscripts.
In the acknowledged writings of Philo, he specifically used the term "Hebrews" rather than Israelites, when referring to people devoted to the God of Israel. A Hebrew was an Israelite who still adhered to old Jewish customs and language. "Hebrews" referred to those who wanted to stick with the past, with the Old Covenant, with old ways and a legalistic view of the law. By saying "to the Hebrews", Philos is basically saying to the Israelites, "I know that you want to be devout to God and the Old Covenant", but we must accept that Jesus came to fulfill the Old Testament scriptures and He is our High Priest."

Outline of Hebrews' Chapters Compared With Philo's Teachings

1-2 The Son of God made temporarily lower than the angels, to be exalted above all. (Philo taught that the Son of GOD was formed, yet was still actually GOD and is exalted above all.)
3-4 Urging to obey the Sabbath Day. (Philo agreed.)
5-7 The Son of God in the role of Melchizedek High priest and tithes. (Philo taught the same, that Melchizedek is the High Priest! Alleg. Interp. III XXV. (79))
8-9 New Covenant and High Priest and Temples on Earth and in Heaven. (Philo taught the same, that the temple on Earth is modeled after the one in Heaven.)
10 Christ is Sufficient. (Philo placed a lot of emphasis on "The Logos".)
11 The Faith Chapter. (Philo taught the same!)
12 Cloud of witnesses is Philo's style of allegory! Discipline, contrast of Sinai & Zion, The Unshakable Kingdom.
13 Be careful to entertain strangers/angels, the unchanging Christ.

Comparisons of Hebrews with Philos:
Both Philo and the Author Of Hebrews Used Many Previously Unknown Words And Also "Compound Words".
"As regards language, the letter (of Hebrews) is a treasure-house of expressions characteristic of the individuality of the writer. As many as 168 terms have been counted which appear in no other part of the New Testament, among them ten words found neither in Biblical or classical Greek, and forty words also which are not found in the Septuagint (Old Testament). One noticeable peculiarity is the preference of the author for compound words (cf. E. Jacquier, "Histoire des livres du N.T.", I, Paris, 1903, 457-71; Idem in Vig., "Dict. de la Bible". III, 530-38). A comparison of the letter as regards language and style with the other writings of St. Paul confirms in general the opinion of Origen that every competent judge must recognize a great difference between them (in Eusebius, Church History VI.25.11)."

Philo was the first extant writer of many previously unknown Greek words and phrases and also used many compound words. Source:
Philo and the Church Fathers: A Collection of Papers. By Douwe (David) Runia. Chapter 5 Pages 102-103.

Of all registered nouns and verbs it is important to notice that in the Letter to the Hebrews, 81.04 percent of them are also recognizable in the writings of Philo and in relation to all lemmas in the entire New Testament they represent 15.27 percent. Source= Fuglseth, K. (2003). Common Words in the New Testament and Philo.

Both Philo Posterity XVIII 64 and Hebrews 4:4 quote Gen.2:2 by adding "The Theos in", despite no there is no known manuscript of the Septuagint of Gen.2:2 that include these words.

Gen.2:2 And on the seventh day Theos ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. (No known bible manuscript of Gen. 2:2 uses "The Theos in".)
Heb.4:4 Greek For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise, And The Theos in the seventh day did rest from all his works.
Philo Posterity XVIII 64 (Greek) "And The Theos in the seventh day ceased from all the works that he had made; and God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it,

Hebrews 8:5 and Leg. III., 102. quote of Exodus 25:40 where both authors add the Greek word #3956 panta (all things).

Exodus 25:40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was shewed thee in the mount. (Does not say "all things".)
Heb.8:5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.
Allegorical Interpretation, III (The Third Book of the Treatise on The Allegories of the Sacred Laws, after the Work of the Six Days of Creation.) XXXIII. 102 Philo quoted Exo. 25:40 as follows: "Thou shall make all things according to the pattern which was shown thee in the Mount”.

Hebrews 13:5 and Confusion XXXII. 166 quote of Joshua 1:5 conflated with several other scriptural passages, Deut. 31:8 and possibly Gen 28:15. Both texts employ this composite text in almost the same form “οὐ μή σε ἀνῶ οὔδ’ οὐ μὴ σε ἐγκαταλίπω.” Ibid 12 says the same!

Joshua 1:5 There shall not any man be able to stand before thee all the days of thy life: as I was with Moses, so I will be with thee: I will not fail (5246.2) thee, nor forsake (1459) thee.
Heb.13:5 Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave (447) thee, nor forsake (1459) thee.
Confusion XXXII. 166: "I will never leave thee (447), nor forsake (1459) Thee."
(Hebrews 13:5 usage of Greek word #447 matches Philo's writings.)

The Image of God

Hebrews 1:3 Who being the brightness (G541) of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power (1411), when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

Wisdom 7:25-26 "For She (Wisdom) is a breath/word of the power (1411) of God, and an emanation/brightness (G541) of the pure glory of the Almighty (Majesty on high), on account of which no polluted thing can enter into her: for [she] ["wisdom"—v. 24] is the brightness/effulgence (G541) of the eternal light; and a spotless mirror of the power of God and image of His goodness."

G541 = effulgence; refulgence; brightness; the shining-forth; brilliant radiance" etc. Only used here and Heb 1:3.
Only used in these two places in the entire Greek Bible!
Both Wisdom 7:25-26 and Hebrews 1:3 also use Greek 1411 for power (as well as many verses in the bible do.)
Both also refer to image and breath/word and glory although they use different words for these.

Colossians 1:12-19
12 Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light:
13 Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son:
14 In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins:
15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:
16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:
17 And he is before all things, and by him all things consist (hold together).
(Paul learned this from Philo. Philo said in "On Flight And Finding" (Yonge’s title: A Treatise on Fugitives) XX. 112 "for the word of the living God being the bond of every thing, as has been said before, holds all things together, and binds all the parts, and prevents them from being loosened or separated.)
18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.
19 For it pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell;

On The Confusion Of Tongues XXVIII. (Translated by I Saw The Light Ministries 2020)
(146) And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his messengers, as the great arch messenger of many names; for he is called, 'the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God’s image, and he who sees Israel'. (147) For which reason I was induced a little while ago to praise the principles of those who said, “We are all one man’s sons.”{43}{Genesis 42:11.} For even if we are not yet suitable to be called the sons of God, still we may deserve to be called the children of his eternal image, of his most sacred word; for the image of God is his most ancient word.

Dreams 1. XXXVII. (1.215) “There are 2 temples of God, and one is this cosmos, wherein the High Priest is the Firstborn Son, the Divine Logos.”

Hebrews 8:1-6
1 Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; 2 A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. 3 For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore it is of necessity that this man have somewhat also to offer. 4 For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law: 5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount. 6 But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.

God Sword By Himself, Moses Faithful in His House

Hebrews 6:13 For when God made promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself,

Hebrews 3:1-2 Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus; Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house.

Alleg Interp3.LXXII.
(203) Accordingly he speaks with reference to the perfect man Abraham in the following manner: “By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, that because thou hast done this thing and hast not withheld thy son, thy beloved son from me, that in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is on the shore of the sea.”{103}{Genesis 22:16.} He says this, and having confirmed his promise solemnly and by an oath, and by an oath, too, such as could alone become God. For you see that God does not swear by any other being than himself, for there is nothing more powerful than he is; but he swears by himself, because he is the greatest of all things. (204) But some men have said that it is inconsistent with the character of God to swear at all; for that an oath is received for the sake of the confirmation which it supplies; but God is the only faithful being, and if any one else who is dear to God; as Moses is said to have been faithful in all his house.{104}{Numbers 12:7.}

The Faith Chapter

Same order of people listed in Wisdom 10 and Hebrews 11:4-23:
Wisdom 10: Verses 1-2 are talking about Adam and then all of mankind delivered by Christ.
Verse 3 = Abel and Cain.
Verse 4 = Noah.
Verse 5 = Abraham.
Verses 6-9 = Lot which is not listed in Hebrews, but is in connection with Abraham.
Verses 10-12 = Jacob.
Verses 13-14 = Joseph.
Verses 15-21 = Moses.

Hebrews 11:4-23: Abel with Cain, Enoch, Noah, Abraham/Sarah, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses.
Wisdom 10 doesn't list the names as we see in Hebrews 11. But it does describe each of the same persons in the same order.
The exceptions would be Lot and Enoch which are not listed in parallel in both. Nevertheless, all of the names listed are in the exact same order, in only one chapter in both Old and New Testament and does include not just 1, 2 or 3 names, but 6 names of people who showed great faith and wisdom.

Abraham and the other testimony witnesses of faith did not yet receive the promises, but expected the afar off.
Hebrews 11:8-13
8 By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went.
9 By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise:
10 For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God.
11 Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised.
12 Therefore sprang there even of one, and him as good as dead, so many as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as the sand which is by the sea shore innumerable.
13 These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.

Faith of Noah Pg. 1492 Questions and Answers on Genesis 2, Section 11
Abraham.IX IX. (43) And Moses speaks very cautiously, inasmuch as he defines not the present time but the future in the promise which he records, when he says, "Not that which I do show you, but that which I will show You;" as a testimony to the faith with which the soul believed in God, showing its gratitude not by what had been already done, but by its expectation of the future; (44) for being kept in a state of suspense and eagerness by good hope, and thinking that even what was not present would beyond all question be present immediately, on account of its most certain faith in him who had promised, it found a reward, the perfect good; for in another passage it is said that Abraham believed in God. Compare Gal. 3:6

Philo basically called The Son of God the resurrection and Jesus said that He was the resurrection.

Note: The following usage of the word “East” has since been better understood as “rises”, as in the rising of the sun, and as in "resurrection":
“Behold, a man whose name is the East/Rising/Resurrection!” A very novel appellation indeed, if you consider it as spoken of a man who is compounded of body and soul; but if you look upon it as applied to that incorporeal being who in no respect differs from the divine image, you will then agree that the name of the east/resurrection has been given to him with great felicity. (63) For the Father of the universe has caused him to spring up as the eldest son, whom, in another passage, he calls the firstborn; and he who is thus born, imitating the ways of his father . . . . On the Confusion of Tongues, Book 14:62, 63

Luke 1:78 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring (G395 - anatolē, rising) from on high hath visited us.
G395 - anatolē translated as rising in Rev. 7:2.

John 11:25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:

Rev.22:16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

Malachi 4:2 But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.

Hebrews 13:24 Mentions Italy

Philo was the leader of the Alexandrian delegation to Rome, Italy in 38-39 AD. Therefore, he could have written Hebrews at that time, or else could have been referring to salutations sent via letters.

Why Apollos Can't Be Author of Hebrews

Although many people try to claim that Apollos of Acts 18:24 wrote the book of Hebrews, we don't have any proof that Apollos wrote anything, or that he was a writer at all. But we have tons of the writings of Philo to compare with the Wisdom of Solomon and with Hebrews. Also, we have a manuscript that says that Philnos wrote the Wisdom of Solomon, therefore we have proof that not only did Philo write much, but indeed wrote scripture. We also don't know much about Apollo's background. But we know that Philo was a very accomplished writer and great spiritual leader of the extremely important community of the Alexandria Jews. To claim that Apollos wrote Hebrews would be a giant jump of conclusion, whereas we can prove the identical words and style of Philo with Hebrews and Wisdom.

Section 4: Answering Concerns

Concerns About Platonism

Philo spoke well of Plato and other philosophers. But mostly only to support the truth that the world will never cease to exist, and was created from the very essence of eternity, God Himself. Perhaps he respected Plato's writings only for the extent of some truth.
Plato = 428 BC to 347 BC. Plato was not atheist. But his ideal of God wasn't perfect.
Plus, Plato is greatly misunderstood by modern day Christians.
Plato is not the same person as Dante's inferno 1265-1321 AD.
Early apologist Justin Martyr (100 AD) believed Plato “spoke well in proportion to the share he had of the spermatic word”. While recognizing that there were clear differences between the two teachings, Justin did find much similarity between Platonic philosophy and Christianity. This admiration for Plato was shared by other apologetic writers, especially Athenagoras. They had a reverence for Platonic teaching, and made frequent reference to it, sometimes quoting entire passages from Plato while making a defense of the Christian faith.
It may come as a surprise that many of the early Christian apologists viewed the Greek philosophers Plato and Socrates very highly. Justin Martyr, in his First and Second Apologies (written mid-2nd century AD) mentions both philosophers many times, as do Tertullian and Athenagoras in their apologies of the same time period.
'On Earth as it is in Heaven ...' The heavenly sanctuary motif in Hebrews 8:5 and its textual connection with the 'shadowy copy' of LXX Exodus 25:40. According to Plato, the earthly priests were only serving in a shadowy copy of the heavenly sanctuary. This Platonic concept that the earthly is a shadow of the reality (cf. Plato Resp. 7.515a–b), that is, his theory of ideas and then the particular use of u(podei/gmati kai\ skia|~ (copy and shadow) (Heb 8:5) by Hebrews, led scholars to believe that we have Platonic influence here (Attridge 1989:219; Weiss 1991:437; Sowers 1965:109–110), or new Platonic thoughts via Philo. However, some scholars are skeptical and have formed another opinion (e.g. Wilson 1987:135). Ellingworth (2000).

Concerns About Philo's Opinion of Females

Philo wrote about the evils of the feminine nature (of women). In today's modern westernized society, this is not easily accepted. But if we compare his words with the bible, he's not saying much of anything different that what we fully embrace as holy scripture. We must realize that the bible was written in a time when men ruled the world and everything in it, including women. From birth to death, women were owned by their dads first, and then their husband or brother or uncle. Women were also used as concubines. Women were not allowed to go to school. Therefore ancient writings came from the mindset of men who totally dominated women in every aspect of society.
The memory of Eve leading Adam into sin, and then pagan women leading Solomon away from God, was also fresh in their minds. To this very day, many men are led away from God, and away from his truth, by females in one way or another, whether it's women pastors or wicked girlfriends or a wife, mom or sister. I must testify that women have been responsible for most of the most burdensome times in my life. Many women are led by their emotions and feelings (including fear, worry and anger) rather than fully considering everything that must be considered; and they transmit those negative feelings outwardly toward men and everyone around them. Women are created by God to follow the leadership of men. But in the process of serving men and in following the male leadership, they should eventually overcome their natural weaknesses and adopt more of the logical, fearless mind of a man, without losing their good feminine characteristics.
Of course it's not evil to be a female, and Philo never taught that females are totally sinful without any chance of redemption. But it's clearly very correct to warn men about the possible dangers of being led into sin and trouble by the influence of women.

Concerns About God Not Being A "Being"

There's a lot of debate about what "being" actually meant when Philo claimed that God is too great to be thought of as a being. Ancient words are very difficult to completely understand. Because of this confusion, I don't think that we should quickly and automatically be against him just based on this alone. When he wrote "The Wisdom of Solomon", God was not in human form as the firstborn son yet. But even beyond that, I believe that Philo was correct, that GOD is an energy that fills all of the universe, and all things are in Him, and He is in all things, therefore He's not a being in the exact same sense that everyone else is, but of course God is a being, and in fact many times said so despite his one comment mentioned above. It's difficult to put into words such huge spiritual truths.

Concerns About Pagan Gods

Of what I have read so far, and of what I can find so far, he never wrote that he believes in the existence of Zeus and other false gods, as being true Gods in the same sense of the Creator Almighty God. Philo very clearly believed firmly in the true God of Israel as the only Almighty God above all of creation. So when he said that GOD is the God above all gods, he was not saying anything different from the bible. The bible says that God said that we are all gods, and we could also say that the angels are sons of God similar to the way that we are. Psalm 82:6, John 10:34, 1 Cor. 8:5
When Philo spoke about the false gods, he didn't do so in endorsement of worshipping or promoting them, but rather only briefly mentioning what is claimed about them, even as Jesus also used the Talmud mythological story of Lazarus and the rich man in order to prove a point.
Also, common sense gives us understanding that Philo would have been required to read and learn Plato in school, since he grew up in the Greek dominated Roman Empire and was among the most highly educated of his society. That would be similar to our current situation where many American students are required to read Shakespeare and are thereby influenced by it . I could also quote from a lot of movies and songs because of their influence on the society in which I live. The apostle Paul used a lot of symbolism of the Olympics in his writings, yet not everything about the Olympics could be called "holy", but rather the exact opposite.

Concerns About Angels

In most modern English translations of On the Confusion of Tongues" XXVIII. 146, Philo says even if no one is “worth to be called a Son of God,” we should still “labor earnestly to be adorned according to his firstborn Logos/Word, the eldest of his angels (should be translated as "vessels", not angels), the ruling archangel (should be translated as "chief vessel" or "chief messenger") of many titles/names”. The word "angel" had multiple meanings such as manifestation, messenger, vessel, instrument and angel. So the translation is extremely easy to confuse. But it's impossible for Jesus to be an angel when all of the angels worship Him and He created the entire world, and He is the Saviour of all mankind. The same translation problem occurs in most English bibles throughout the Old Testament when referring to "The Angel of THE LORD", when if fact, it isn't talking about an angel at all, but rather is talking about the manifestation of The Logos, The Word of GOD, the image of GOD, Jesus before his human birth.

Concerns About Female Wisdom Referring to God

Philo referred to wisdom in the female gender. He also wrote that wisdom is the "mother of all things." He referred to wisdom as a "mother" in "The Wisdom of Solomon" also.
Well this is not a problem because he was only using the same style of analogy as Solomon did in Proverbs. Philo was not teaching that God is a female, or half female or any such thing. Philo completely understood GOD to be spirit, without human sexual parts and far beyond comparison to human anatomy.

The only thing that Philo is doing is using the same gender of wisdom that Solomon did in Proverbs, and then referring to God has being the very essence of all wisdom, since God is the source of all wisdom, righteousness and law. Philo is not claiming that God is female or half female or bisexual. And he's not really calling God a mother. But rather just continuing Solomon's analogical usage of wisdom as a female/sister/mother. It's all symbolism, not literal. Therefore, there's no real need for such concern.

Concerns About Trinity and Multiple Gods
The Logos Explained

On The Creation: XXIV. (75) It is on this account that Moses says, at the creation of man alone that God said, “Let us make man,” which expression shows an assumption of other beings to himself as assistants, in order that God, the governor of all things, might have all the blameless intentions and actions of man, when he does right attributed to him; and that his other assistants might bear the imputation of his contrary actions."

Philo also referred to God as the "logos", "wisdom", "the firstborn", "the image", "the high priest", etc. But it's clear that he wasn't promoting many creator gods. He was writing about the many attributes and roles and manifestations of God. However, he correctly taught that before the creation of physical things including angels, God had to first create a vessel of his own glory, a way to speak to the angels and to mankind in a way that they would be able to understand. God basically had to create for Himself a "speaker phone", a translator, a word, a logos, a mediator between God and creation. But the logos/word/Jesus was/is still God the creator. The logos was God and the logos was with God, John 1. The logos was the vessel/instrument/mediator voice that God created for Himself within Himself, as part of Himself, even thousands or millions or billions of years before the birth of Christ. The logos is not a 2nd or 3rd person or 2nd or 3rd god head. There's no such trinity. The logos is the same as if we had never before spoken out loud, and had never heard anyone else speak in our entire life, and then we decided in our mind to make sound and speak intelligently for the first time from within our own vocal cords without previous training or teaching. But we would speak only gibberish, but God spoke intelligently. If Jesus prayed to the Father, then why can't the Father say "Let us make man in our image"? But He didn't say let us make man in our images. Our image is still referring to one God, and the verb form in these verses all refer to a singular subject. The verses do not prove a trinity, but rather prove that Jesus existed within The Father, while still being The Father, Creator of the universe. Philo never wrote the word "trinity", nor did he ever write that God is three persons or three beings or three spirits.
The logos is a vessel of God's presence and is not a separate person. Therefore God did not create a new person or new spirit or new being. The logos is not a separate person/being/spirit. "Us" in Genesis is not persons/beings/spirits, or even gods, but rather parts and manifestations of the single one God. When Philo uses the word "assistants", that's technically correct (except for the plural form of the word) because the logos was a vessel/instrument of assistance. The problem with the plural could be a mistranslation, which I will look into. Or it could be a temporary moment in lapse in judgment on Philo's part. We are all guilty of contradicting ourselves at some times and having those "senior moments". But I believe that overall, Philo's teachings are mostly correct. I admit that I have not read every word of all of his writings, which is on my "to do" list. And I will be editing and adding onto this article over the next few days, weeks and months. This article will remain a work in progress, as I read.

Philo explains The Logos in On The Creation: VI 24 to VIII 31. In that section, he explains that The Logos, which is the image of GOD, which is the water of life, the breath of life and the light of the world, is the divine reasoning of GOD, which he also calls "the idea of ideas" or the image of images. Many people do not like the traditional bible translation of the Greek word "logos" as "the word" in John 1 and other places. Many present many different possible alternative translations. And we are never going to be able to satisfy everyone. I have always felt that "the word" is truly the best translation. Now upon much further study and revelation and understanding and learning, I now declare that "The Logos" is still best translated as "The Word", but could also be translated as the "outward manifestation/vessel of speech and/or appearance" or to be much more brief, "The Vessel". The Vessel functions at times as a bull horn (megaphone, loudspeaker), and other times as an image, and He also functioned as the Passover Lamb of GOD. He was King Melchizedek, and the pillar of cloud and pillar of fire, the fire at the burning bush and the one whom Jacob wrestled with. He is coming back as The King of kings and The Lord of lords. "The Word" is still the best one word translation because God created the world via his breath and with spoken speech. Most of the time when The Vessel is manifested to mankind, He is manifested so that He can speak to us in a way that won't kill us. The word "logos" when not referring to GOD but rather the speech of humans all throughout the bible, is correctly translated as "word" or "spoke", etc. Therefore the people who try to demand that the bible translate The Logos of GOD as "reasoning", "mind" or other words, are being unreasonable and stubborn. "The Word" is the best translation considering all things.

Section 5: Fruits of These Revelations

*Jewish people will learn from this. (Philo had embraced the Old Covenant, written scripture, then accepted the New Covenant and wrote Hebrews including the acceptance of Jesus as the promised Messiah.)
*Gnostics will find the true light of Jesus Christ.
*Atheists will be proven wrong about Philo, as they wrongfully claim that Philo didn't mention Jesus.
*Many people, even beyond Gnostics and atheists, will embrace more of the truth of Jesus Christ.
*More Christians will come to more accurately view God as an ever present spirit that exists in all places at all times, rather than a 6 foot tall man on a throne in Heaven a billion miles away.
*Discoveries about the authors of the books of the bible is extremely historical and important, and help to validate doctrines and the divinity of Christ.
*This will cause many of us to re-read and re-study 2 books of the bible. That's awesome!
*There is much debate about the translation of the word "logos". As I read much more of Philo, it might cause me to eventually correct the translation in The Alpha & Omega Bible, or else greater confirm the traditional tradition of "The Word".
*Educate more Christians about bible history including the city of Alexandria and its importance. Whereas most Christians are not taught much of what pastors are taught in seminary.

Section 6: Warnings: Translations and Infancy of His Earliest Writings

English Translations:

Every time that an ancient manuscript is translated, you will automatically have a translation that is clearly influenced by the translator's personal opinions and beliefs. The same is true with bible translations as well as translations of Philo's writings. I have already found in a very short time many translations errors in the English publish works of Philo. It will take much time to correct the mistakes.

Old Covenant Theology

Having been born during the old covenant time era, Philo was a very strong supporter of the old covenant laws of circumcision and unclean meats. But we must remember that the Wisdom of Solomon and the "works of Philo" were both written during the old covenant time period. If we read the Old Testament but not the New Testament, we would agree with circumcision and unclean meats, but when we read Paul's writings, we are enlightened to forbid circumcision and accept that the body and blood of Jesus replaced the old covenant ritual ceremonial laws . I believe that the writings of Philo were before the revelation to Paul against circumcision. In no way should we use Philo's writings to promote circumcision or unclean meats. Like John the baptist (not a denomination, but rather a person who baptizes people), Philo was a bridge between the Old Testament and the New Testament. We can't neglect the entire book of Galatians about circumcision, nor we can reject the power of the blood of Jesus.

Wrong Doctrine of Angels Giving The Law

Hebrews 2 teaches that angels were some how involved in the giving of the law. Paul also wrongly believed this. However, if we carefully read all of the Old Testament, God always spoke directly to Moses and Moses wrote it down. Angels were not sent to speak to Moses. God spoke directly to him and the bible says so. Angels didn't write the law. Moses did. Philo was influenced by the Essenes who he spoke very well of. The Essenes gloried angels too much. Therefore although the Essenes and Philo was wrong, this is yet another point of proof that Hebrews was written by Philo, a person who greatly admired the Essenes. Paul was influenced by Philo's writings. Please read our article "Was the Law Given By Angels?"

Section 7: Philo On Other Multiple Topics

-Concerning the Nephilim, Philo seems to possibly (and wrongfully) claim that the sons of god that had sex with daughters of men were just rebellious wicked men?
-Moses calls the seat of Nimrod's kingdom "Babylon".
-He tells about the translation of the LXX on pages 915-917-918 or so. Keyword seventy and chapter Moses 2.VI
-Enoch did die. "When Enoch died".

Section 8: Manuscripts Great list of chapter titles which are linked to each readable web page of each chapter.

I Saw The Light Ministries hopes to publish our own better translated copy soon. Please subscribe to our newsletter, farther down this page, to be notified of when it is published as well as other ministry updates and important world news as it relates to bible prophecy being fulfilled.

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